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Selected Refereed Publications




In the Publication Pipeline


Gonzalez-Rocha, J., Bilyeu, L., Ross, S.D., Foroutan, H., Jacquemin, S., Ault, A.,and Schmale, D.G. 202_. Sensing atmospheric flows in aquatic environments using a multirotor small uncrewed aircraft system (sUAS). In review.









Pretorius, I., Schou, W.C., Richardson, B., Ross, S.D., Withers, T.M., Schmale, D.G., and Strand, T.M. 202_. In the wind: invasive species travel along predictable atmospheric pathways. In review.










Schmale, D.G., Wood, S., Hicks, B. 202_. New techniques with drones for sampling harmful algal blooms. Book chapter, In review.










Hanlon, R., Jimenez-Sanchez, C., Benson, J., Aho, K., Morris, C., Seifried, T.M., Baloh, P., Grothe, H. and Schmale, D.G. 202_. Diversity and ice nucleation activity of bacteria in drone water samples from eight lakes in Austria. In review.










Gruszewski, H., Park., H., Kim, S., Somers, K., Jung., S., and Schmale, D.G. 202_. Monitoring the splash dispersal of a plant pathogen from infected wheat leaves using highspeed video. In revision.

















Published






Hanlon, R., Jacquemin, S., Birbeck, J., Westrick, J., Harb, C., Gruszewski, H., Ault, A., Scott, D., Foroutan, H., Ross, S., Gonzalez-Rocha, J., Powers, C., Pratt, L., Looney, H., Baker, G., and Schmale, D.G. 2022. Drone-based water sampling and characterization of three freshwater harmful algal blooms in the United States.  Frontiers in Remote Sensing, 3:949052.
https://doi.org/10.3389/frsen.2022.949052
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Iliff, G., Mukherjee, R., Gruszewski, H., Schmale, D.G., Jung, S., and Boreyko, J. 2022. Phase-change-mediated transport and agglomeration of fungal spores on wheat awns. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 19: 20210872.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2021.0872
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Moeltner, K.,, Fanara, T., Foroutan, H., Hanlon, R., Lovko, V., Ross, S., and Schmale, D.G. 2022. Harmful algal blooms and toxic air: The economic value of improved forecasts. Marine Resource Economics. In press.










Filippi, M., Hanlon, R., Rypina, I., Hodges, B., Peacock, T., and Schmale, D.G.  2021. Tracking a surrogate hazardous agent (rhodamine dye) in a coastal ocean environment using in situ measurements and concentration estimates derived from drone images. Remote Sensing, 13(21), 4415; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13214415
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Del Ponte, E., et al. 2021. Fusarium graminearum species complex: a bibliographic analysis and web-accessible database for global mapping of species and trichothecene toxin chemotypes. Phytopathology, https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-06-21-0277-RVW
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Pack, E., Weiland, S., Musser, R., Schmale, D.G. 2021. Survey of zearalenone and type-B trichothecene mycotoxins in swine feed in the United States of America. Mycotoxin Research, 37: 297–313.
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Baloh, P., Hanlon, R., Anderson, C., Dolan, E., Pacholik, G., Stinglmayr, D., Burkart, J., Felgitsch, L. Schmale, D., Grothe, H. 2021. Seasonal ice nucleation activity of water samples from alpine rivers and lakes in Obergurgl, Austria. Science of The Total Environment, 800: 149442.
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Mukherjee, R., Gruszewski, H., Bilyeu, L., Schmale, D.G., Boreyko, J. 2021. Synergistic Dispersal of Plant Pathogen Spores by Jumping-Droplet Condensation
and Wind. PNAS.
118 (34) e2106938118; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106938118
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Pack, E., Meyerhoff, K., Schmale, D.G. 2021 Tracking zearalenone and type-B trichothecene mycotoxins in the commercial production of beer and brewers’ spent grains. Journal of American Society of Brewing Chemists, DOI:
10.1080/03610470.2021.1938489.

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Seifried, T., Bieber, P., Kunert, A., Schmale, D.G., Whitmore, K., Frohlich-Nowoisky, J, and Grothe, H. 2021. Ice nucleation activity of alpine bioaerosol emitted in vicinity of a birch forest. Atmosphere, 12(6):779. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060779
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Harb, C., Pan, J., DeVilbiss, S., Badgley, B., Marr, L., Schmale, D., Foroutan, H. 2021. Increasing Freshwater Salinity Impacts Aerosolized Bacteria. Environmental Science and Technology, 55 (9): 5731–5741.
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Nave, G., Hall, N., Somers, K., Davis, B., Gruszewski, H., Powers, C., Collver, C., Schmale, D.G., Ross, S.D., Shane D. Wind dispersal of natural and biomimetic maple samaras. 2021. Biomimetics 6: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020023
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Ristaino, J.B., , Anderson, P., Bebber, D., Brauman, K.A., Cunniffe, N.J., Federoff, N., Finegold, C., Garrett, K.A., Gilligan, C.A., Jones, C., Martin, M., MacDonald, G.K., Neenan, P., Records, A., Schmale, D.G., Tateosian, L., Wei, Q.  2021. The Persistent Threat of Emerging Plant Disease Pandemics to Global Food Security. PNAS. Accepted.










Machado, F., Kunem, P.R., Casa, R.T., McMaster, N., Schmale, D.G., Vaillancourt, L., Del Ponte, E.  2021. The dominance of Fusarium meridionale over F. graminearum causing Gibberella ear rot in Brazil may be due to increased aggressiveness and competitiveness. Phytopathology, 111(10):1774-1781.
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Gonzalez-Rocha, J., Sosa, A., Hanlon, R., Allen, A., Rypina, I., Schmale, D.G., and Ross, S.D. 2021. Multirotor-assisted measurements of wind-induced drift of irregularly shaped objects in aquatic environments. Applied Ocean Research 110: 102538.
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Carpenter, N.R., Wright, E., Malla, S., Singh, L., Van Sanford, D., Clark, A., Harrison, S., Murphy, J.P., Costa, J., Chao, S. Brown‐Guedira, G.L., McMaster, N, Schmale, D.G., Griffey, C, and Rawat, N. 2020. Identification and Validation of FHB Resistance QTL in the US Soft Red Winter Wheat Variety Jamestown. Crop Science, 60: 2919-2930.
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de Boer, G. Houston, A., Jacob, J., Chilson, P.B., Smith, S.W., Argrow, B., Lawrence, D., Elston, J., Brus, D., Kemppinen, O., Klein, P., Lundquist, J.K., Waugh, S., Bailey, S., Frazier, A., Sama, M.P., Crick, C., Schmale, D.G, Pinto, J., Pillar-Little, E.A., Natalie, V., and Jensen, A. 2020. Data Generated During the 2018 LAPSE-RATE Campaign: An Introduction and Overview. Earth System Science Data, 12: 3357-3366.
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Seifried, T., Bieber, P., Felgitsch, L., Vlasich, J., Reyzek, F., Schmale, D.G., and Grothe, H. 2020 Surfaces of Silver Birch (Betula pendula) are Sources of Biological Ice Nuclei: In-vivo and In-situ Investigations. Biogeosciences, 17:5655–5667.
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Pack, E., Stewart, J., Rhoads, M., Knight, J., Clark-Deener, S., Schmale, D.G, and De Vita, R. 2020. Effects of short-term moderate ZEN consumption on uterosacral ligament elasticity in pubertal gilts. Research in Veterinary Science, 133:202-209.
Click here to access the article online.










Pack, E., Stewart, J., Rhoads, M., Knight, J., De Vita, R., Clark-Deener, S., and Schmale, D.G. 2020. Quantification of the mycotoxins zearalenone and α-zearalenol in swine reproductive tissues using GC-MS. Toxicon X, 10058.
Click here to access the article online.










Park., H., Kim, S., Gruszewski, H., Schmale, D.G., Boreyko, J., and Jung., S. 2020. Dynamics of Splashed Droplets Impacting Wheat Leaves Treated with a Fungicide. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 17: 20200337.
Click here to access the article online.










Valverde-Bogantes, E., Bolanos-Carriel, C., Hallen-Adams, H.E., McMaster, N., Schmale, D.G., and Wegulo, S. 2020. Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production of Nebraska Isolates of Fusarium boothii and F. graminearum. Plant Health Progress, 10.1094/PHP-01-20-0001-RS.
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Bieber, P., Seifried, T.M., Burkart, J., Gratzl, J., Kasper-Giebl, A., Schmale, D.G., and Grothe. 2020. A Drone-Based Bioaerosol Sampling System to Monitor Ice Nucleation Particles in the Lower Atmosphere. Remote Sensing, 12(3), 552.
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Jimenez-Sanchez, C., Wilson, N., McMaster, N., Gantulga, G., Freedman, B., Senger, R., and Schmale, D.G. 2020. A Mycotoxin Transporter (4D) from a Library of Deoxynivalenol-Tolerant Microorganisms. Toxicon X, 5, 100023.
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Moore, R., Hanlon, R., Powers, C., Schmale, D.G., and Christner, B. 2020. Scavenging of sub-micron to micron-sized microbial aerosols during simulated rainfall. Atmosphere, 11(1), 80.
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Bolanos-Carriel, C., Wegulo, S., Hallen-Adams, H., Baenziger, P., Eskridge, K., Funnell-Harris, D., McMaster, N.,  and Schmale, D.G. 2020. Effects of field-applied fungicides, grain moisture, and time on deoxynivalenol during postharvest storage of winter wheat grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 100(3): 304-313.  
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de Boer, G., Diehl, C., Jacob, J., Houston, A., Smith, S.W., Chilson, P., Schmale, D.G., Intrieri, J., Pinto, J., Elston, J, Brus, D., Kemppinen, O., Clark, A., Lawrence, D., Bailey, S.C.C., Sama, M.P., Frazier, A., Crick, C., Natalie, V., Pillar-Little, E., Klein, P., Waugh, S., Lundquist, J.K., Barbieri, L., Kral, S.T., Jensen, A.A., Dixon, C., Borenstein, S., Hesselius, D.S., Human, K., Hall, P., Argrow, B., Thornberry, T., Gao, R.S., Wright, R., Kelly, J.T. 2020. Development of community, capabilities and understanding through unmanned aircraft-based atmospheric research: The LAPSE-RATE campaign. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,101 (5): E684–E699.
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Aho, K., Weber, C.F., Christne, B.C., Vinatzer, B.A., Morris, C.E., Joyce, R., Failor K., Werth, J.T., Bayless-Edwards, A.L.H., Schmale, D.G. 2020. Spatiotemporal patterns of microbial composition and diversity in precipitation. Ecological Monographs, 90 (1), e01394.
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Kunert, A.T., Pohlker, M.L., Krevert, C.S., Wieder, C., Speth, K.R., Hanson, L.E., Morris, C.E., Schmale, D.G., Poschl, U., and Frohlich-Nowoisky, J. 2019. Macromolecular fungal ice nuclei in Fusarium: Effects of physical
and chemical processing. Biogeosciences, 16, 4647-4659.

Click here to access the article online.










Fletcher, J., Barnaby, N.G., Burans, J., Melcher, U., Luster, D.G., Nutter, F.W., Scherm, H., Schmale, D.G., Thomas, C., Corona., F.M. 2019. Forensic Plant Pathology. Chapter in Microbial Forensics, 3rd Edition.
Click here to access the book online.










Creamean, J.M., Cross, J.N., Pickart, R., McRaven, L., Lin, P., Pacini, A., Hanlon, R., Schmale, D.G., Ceniceros, J., Aydell, T., Colombi, N., Bolger, E., DeMott, P.J.  2019. Ice nucleating particles carried from below a phytoplankton bloom to the atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 46 (14): 572-8581. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083039
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McMaster, N., Acharya, B., Harich, K., Grothe, J., Mehl, H., and Schmale, D.G. 2019. Quantification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON) in Sorghum using GC-MS and a Stable Isotope Dilution Assay (SIDA). Food Analytical Methods 12 (10): 2334-2343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01588-3
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Schmale, D.G., Ault, A., Saad, A., Scott, D., and Westrick, J. 2019. Perspectives on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and the Cyberbiosecurity of Freshwater Systems. Frontiers Bioengineering Biotechnology, 7:128. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.0012.
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Nath, S., Gruszewski, H., Budhiraja, S., Ahmadi, S., Bisbano, C., Jung, S., Schmale, D.G., Boreyko, J. 2019 `Sneezing' plants: Pathogen transport via jumping-droplet condensation. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 16 (155). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2019.0243
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Barbieri, L., Kral, S.T., Bailey. S.C.C., Frazier, A.E., Jacob, J.D., Reuder, J., Brus, D., Chilson, P.D., Crick, C., Detweiler, C.,  Doddi, A., Elston, J., Foroutan, H., Gonzalez-Rocha, J., Greene, B.R., Guzman, M.I., Houston, A.L., Islam, A., Kemppinen, O.,  Lawrence, D.,  Pillar-Little, E.A., Ross, S.D., Sama, M., Schmale III, D.G., Schuyler, T.J., Shankar, A., Smith, S.W., Waugh, S., Borenstein, S., Dixon, C., de Boer, G. 2019. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) in Atmospheric Science: Measurement Intercomparison for LAPSE-RATE. Sensors, 19(9), 2179.
Click here to access the article online.










Garcia, E., Hanlon, R., Makris, M., Powers, C., Jimenez-Sanchez, C., Karatum, O., Marr, L., Sands, C., and Schmale, D.G. 2019. Microbial diversity of individual raindrops collected from simulated and natural and natural precipitation events. Atmospheric Environment, 209:102-111.
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Vasebi, Y., Mechan, M., Hanlon, R., Schmale, D.G., Schnell, R., and Vinatzer, B. 2019 Comprehensive characterization of an Aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaf litter sample that maintained ice nucleation activity for 48 years. Biogeosciences, 16, 1675-1683.
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Kim, S., Park., H., Gruszewski, H., Schmale, D.G. and Jung., S. 2019. Vortex-induced dispersal of a plant pathogen by raindrop impact. PNAS, 116 (11) 4917-4922. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820318116
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Benson, J., Hanlon, R., Seifried, T.M., Baloh, P., Powers, C., Grothe, H. and Schmale, D.G. 2019. Microorganisms collected from the surface of freshwater lakes using a drone water sampling system (DOWSE). Water, 11(1), 157.
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Nolan, P.J., Pinto, J., Gonzalez-Rocha, J., Jensen, A., , Vezzi, C.N., Bailey, S.C.C., de Boer, G., Diehl, C., Laurence III, R., Powers, C.W.P., Foroutan, H., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Coordinated Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and Ground-based Weather Measurements to Predict Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). Sensors, 18, 4448.
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Felgitsch, L., Baloh, P.,  Burkart, J., Mayr, M.,  Momken, M.E.,  Seifried, T.M., Winkler, P., Schmale III, D.G., and Grothe, H. 2018. Birch leaves and branches as a source of ice-nucleating macromolecules. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16063-16079.
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Schuerger, A., Smith, D., Griffin, D., Jaffe, D., Wawrik, B., Burrows, S., Christner, B., Gonzalez-Martin, C., Lipp, E., Schmale, D.G., Yu,H.  2018. Science Questions and Knowledge Gaps to Study Microbial Transport and Survival in Asian and African Dust Plumes Reaching North America. Aerobiologia, 1-11. doi:10.1007/s10453-018-9541-7
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Pietsch, R.B., Grothe, H., Hanlon, R., Powers, C.W., Jung, S., Ross, S.D.., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Wind-driven spume droplet production and the transport of Pseudomonas syringae from aquatic environments. PeerJ. 6:e5663 doi:

10.7717/peerj.5663

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Jimenez-Sanchez, C., Hanlon, R., Aho, K., Powers, C., Morris, C.E., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Diversity and Ice Nucleation Activity of Microorganisms Collected with a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) in France and the United States. Frontiers. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:1667. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01667.
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Wegulo, S.N., Valverde-Bogantes, E.,  Bolanos-Carriel, C., Hallen-Adams, H.,  Bianchini, A., McMaster, N.,  and Schmale, D.G. 2018. First Report of Fusarium boothii Causing Head Blight of Wheat in the United States. Plant Disease.
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Powers, C.,  C., Hanlon, R., Grothe, H., Prussin, A.J., Marr, L., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Coordinated Sampling of Microorganisms over Freshwater and Saltwater Environments using an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) and a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). Frontiers in Microbiology. 9:1668. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01668
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Wilson, N., Dashiell, S., McMaster, N., Bohland, C., and Schmale, D. 2018. Could Your Food be Contaminated with Toxins? Educating High School Students about Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Products. The Science Teacher 86 (1): 46-52.
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Powers, C.W., Hanlon, R., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Tracking of a fluorescent dye in a freshwater lake with an unmanned surface vehicle and an unmanned aircraft system. Remote Sensing,10(1), 81. doi:10.3390/rs10010081
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Powers, C.W., Hanlon, R., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Remote collection of microorganisms at two depths in a freshwater lake using an unmanned surface vehicle (USV). PeerJ. e4290. doi:10.7717/peerj.4290
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Powers, C.W., Predosa, R., Higgins, C., and Schmale, D.G. 2018. Mobile Distributed Temperature Sensing of the Air/Water Interface of an Aquatic Environment with an Unmanned Surface Vehicle. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 6(1): 43-56. doi:10.1139/juvs-2016-0036
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Coluzza, I., Creamean, J., Rossi, M., Wex, H., Alpert, P.A., Bianco, V., Boose, Y., Dellago, C, Felgitsch, L., Frohlich-Nowoisky, J., Herrmann, H., Jungblut, S., Kanji, Z.A., Menzl, G., Moffett, B., Moritz, C., Mutzel, A., Poschl, U., Schauperl, M., Scheel, J., Stopelli, E., Stratmann, F., Grothe, H., and Schmale, D.G. 2017. Perspectives on the Future of Ice Nucleation Research: Research Needs and Unanswered Questions. Atmosphere, 8(8): 138. doi:10.3390/atmos8080138
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Failor, K., Schmale, D.G., Vinatzer, B.A., and Monteil, C.L. 2017. Ice nucleation active bacteria in precipitation are unexpectedly diverse and nucleate ice by employing different mechanisms. The ISME Journal (2017) 11, 1331–1344. doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.12
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Hanlon, R., Powers, C.W., Failor, K., Monteil, C.L., Vinatzer, B.A., and Schmale, D.G. 2017. Microbial ice nucleators scavenged from the atmosphere during simulated rain events. Atmospheric Environment 163: 182-189.
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Wilson, N., McMaster, N., Gantulga, D., Soyars, C., McCormick, S., Knott, K., Senger, R., and Schmale, D. 2017. Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples. Toxins 9(4): 141. doi:10.3390/toxins9040141
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Pietsch, R.B., Vinatzer, B., and Schmale, D.G. 2017. Diversity and abundance of ice nucleating strains of Pseudomonas syringae in a freshwater lake in Virginia, USA. Frontiers in Microbiology. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00318
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Pietsch, R., Bohland, C., Hanlon, R., and Schmale, D. 2016. Turning Into Ice: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Biological Ice Nucleation and the Global Water Cycle. The Science Teacher 83 (9): 37-43.
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David, R.F., Reinisch, M., Trail, F., Marr, L.C., and Schmale, D.G. 2016. Compression tests of Fusarium graminearum ascocarps provide insights into the strength of the perithecial wall and the quantity of ascospores. Fungal Genetics and Biology 96:25-32.
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Brooks, W.S., M. E. Vaughn, G. L. Berger, C. A. Griffey, W. E. Thomason, R. M. Pitman, S. Malla, J. E. Seago, D. W. Dunaway, E. G. Rucker, H. D. Behl, B. R. Beahm, P.W. Browning, D. G. Schmale, N. McMaster, T. Hardiman, J. T. Custis, D. E. Starner, S. A. Gulick, S. R. Ashburn, E. H. Jones, Jr., D. S. Marshall, M. O. Fountain, T. D. Tuong, M. J. Kurantz, R. A. Moreau, and K. B. Hicks. 2016. Registration of 'Secretariat' Winter Barley. Journal of Plant Registrations 10: 217-222. DOI:10.3198/jpr2016.03.0017crc
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David, R.F., Marr, L.C., and Schmale, D.G. 2016. Ascospore release and discharge distances of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum under controlled temperature and relative humidity. European Journal of Plant Pathology 146 (1): 59-69.
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David, R.F., Bozorgmagham, A., Schmale, D.G., Ross, S.D., and Marr, L.C. 2016 Identification of meteorological predictors of Fusarium graminearum ascospore release using correlation and causality analyses. European Journal of Plant Pathology 145 (2): 483-492.
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Adducci, B., Gruszewski, H., Khatibi, P.A., and Schmale, D.G. 2016. Differential Detection of a Surrogate Biological Threat Agent (Bacillus globigii) with a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 78: 160-166.
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Bohland, C., Collver, M., Lally, D., and Schmale, D. 2015. Exploring Ethics in Autonomous Systems through Cyborg Roaches and Robotic Insects. The Science Teacher 82 (9): 25-31.
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Bozorgmagham, A., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2015. Local finite time Lyapunov exponent, local sampling, and probabilistic source and destination regions. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics  22: 663-677.
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Schmale, D.G., and Ross, S.D. 2015. Highways in the sky: Scales of atmospheric transport of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 53: 591-61.
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Pietsch, R.B., David, R.F., Marr, L.C., Vinatzer, B.V., and Schmale, D.G. 2015 Aerosolization of two strains of Pseudomonas syringae in a Collison nebulizer at different temperatures. Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology 49:159–166.
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Prussin, A.J., Marr, L.C., Schmale, D.G., and Ross, S.D. 2015. Experimental validation of a long-distance transport model for plant pathogens: Application to Fusarium graminearum. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 203:118-130.
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Palframan, M., Gruszewski, H.A., Schmale, D.G., and Woolsey, C.A. 2014. Detection of a Surrogate Biological Agent with a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Onboard an Unmanned Aircraft System. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 2: 103-118.
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Brooks, W.S., M. E. Vaughn, G. L. Berger, C. A. Griffey, W. E. Thomason, R. M. Pitman, S. Malla, J. E. Seago, D. W. Dunaway, E. G. Hokanson, H. D. Behl, B. R. Beahm, D. G. Schmale, N. McMaster, T. Hardiman, J. T. Custis, D. E. Starner, S. A. Gulick, S. R. Ashburn, E. H. Jones, Jr., D. S. Marshall, M. O. Fountain, T. D. Tuong, M. J. Kurantz, R. A. Moreau, and K. B. Hicks. 2014. Registration of 'Atlantic' Winter Barley. Journal of Plant Registrations 8: 236-241. DOI:10.3198/jpr2014.04.0019crc
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Lin, B., Ross, S.D., Prussin, A.J., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices. Atmospheric Environment 94: 385-391.
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Khatibi, P.A., Wilson, J., Berger, G., Brooks, W.S., McMaster, N., Griffey, C.A., Hicks, K.B., Nghiem, N.P., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (18): 4204–4213 . DOI: 10.1021/jf501208x
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Rallos, L.E., Johnson, N.G., Schmale, D.G., Prussin, A.J., and Baudoin, A.B. 2014. Fitness of Erysiphe necator with G143A-based Resistance to Quinone Outside Inhibitors. Plant Disease 98 (11): 1494-1502. 
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Berger, G., Green, A., Khatibi, P.A., Brooks, W.S., Rosso, L., Liu, S., Chao, S., Griffey, C.A., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. Characterization of Fusarium head blight resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley. Plant Disease 98 (5): 599-606.
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Pietsch, R.B., Bohland, C.L., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. To Fly or Not to Fly: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Principles of Flight in Biological Systems. Journal of Biological Education 49:53-63. DOI: 10.1080/00219266.2014.882381
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Khatibi, P.A., McMaster, N., Musser, R., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011. Toxins 6(4): 1155-1168.
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Prussin, A.J., Szanyi, N.A., Welling, P.I., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. Estimating the Production and Release of Ascospores from a Field-scale Source of Fusarium graminearum Inoculum. Plant Disease 98 (4): 497-503.
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Prussin, A.J., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2014. Monitoring the long distance transport of Fusarium graminearum from field-scale sources of inoculum. Plant Disease 98(4): 504-511.
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Schroeder, M., Eifert, J., Ponder, M., and Schmale, D.G. 2014.  Association of Campylobacter spp. levels between chicken grow-out environmental samples and processed carcasses. Poultry Science 93 (3): 734-741.
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Bozorgmagham, A., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2013. Real-time Prediction of Atmospheric Lagrangian Coherent Structures Based on Uncertain Forecast Data: An Application and Error Analysis. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 258: 47-60.
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Liu, S., Griffey, C.A., Hall, M.D., McKendry, A.L., Chen, J.L., Brooks, W.S., Brown-Guedira, G., Van Sanford, D., and Schmale, D.G. 2013. Molecular characterization of field resistance to Fusarium head blight in two US soft red winter wheat cultivars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Online July 2013.
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Lin, B., Bozorgmagham, A., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2013. Small fluctuations in the recovery of fusaria across consecutive sampling intervals with unmanned aircraft 100 m above ground level. Aerobiologia, 29: 45-54.
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Marine, S.C., Schmale III, D.G., and Yoder, K.S. 2012. First report of reduced sensitivity to a QoI fungicide in apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) in Virginia and Maryland. Plant Disease, 96:1376.
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Schmale, D. G., Ross, S.D., Fetters, T.L., Tallapragada, P., Wood-Jones, A.K., and Dingus, B.  2012. Isolates of Fusarium graminearum collected 40-320 meters above ground level cause Fusarium head blight in wheat and produce trichothecene mycotoxins. Aerobiologia, 28: 1-11.
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Khatibi, P.A., Berger, G., Liu, S., Brooks, W.S., Griffey, C.A., and Schmale, D.G. 2012. Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in Virginia barley. Plant Disease, 96: 279-284.
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Khatibi, P.A., Montanti, J., Nghiem, N.P., Hicks, K.B., Berger, G., Brooks, W.S., Griffey, C.A., and Schmale, D.G. 2011. Conversion of deoxynivalenol in barley derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing 3-O-acetyltransferases. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4: 1-13.
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Tallapragada, P., Ross, S.D., and Schmale, D.G. 2011. Lagrangian coherent structures are associated with fluctuations in airborne microbial populations. Chaos, 21: 033122-033122-16.
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Keller, M.D, Thomason, W, and Schmale, D.G. 2011. The spread of a released clone of Gibberella zeae from different amounts of infested corn residue. Plant Disease, 95: 1458-1464.
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Bohland, C.E., Schmale, D.G., and Ross, S.D.  2011. Caging the blob: Using a slime mold to teach concepts about barriers that constrain the movement of organisms. The American Biology Teacher, 73: 537-541.
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Schmale, D. G., Wood-Jones, A.K.,  Cowger, C., Bergstrom, G.C., and Arrellano, C.  2011. Trichothecene genotypes of Gibberella zeae from winter wheat fields in the eastern United States. Plant Pathology, 60: 909-917.
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Khatibi, P. A., Newmister, S.,  Rayment, I., McCormick, S. P., Alexander, N. J., and Schmale, D.G. 2011. Bioprospecting for trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases in the fungal genus Fusarium yields functional enzymes that vary in their ability to modify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 1162-1170.
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Aylor, D.E., Schmale, D.G., Shields, E.J., Newcomb, M., and Nappo, C.J. 2011. Tracking the potato late blight pathogen in the atmosphere using unmanned aerial vehicles and Lagrangian modeling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151: 251-260.
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Keller, M.D, Waxman, K.D., Bergstrom, G.C., and Schmale, D.G. 2010. Local distance of wheat spike infection by released clones of Gibberella zeae disseminated from infested corn residue. Plant Disease 94: 1151-1155.
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Techy, L., Schmale, D.G., and Woolsey, C.A. 2010. Coordinated aerobiological sampling of a plant pathogen in the lower atmosphere using two autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. Journal of Field Robotics 27: 335-343.
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Techy, L., Woolsey, C.A., and Schmale, D.G. 2009. Monitoring the spread of a plant pathogen in the lower atmosphere using unmanned aerial vehicles and a buoyancy-controlled weather balloon. SAE Aerotech Congress, DOI: 2009-01-3125.
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Schmale, D.G. and Munkvold, G.P. 2009. Mycotoxins in crops: A threat to human and domestic animal health. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2009-0715-01.
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Scoza, L.B, Astolfi, P.,  Reartes, D.S., Schmale, D.G. III, Moraes, M.G., and Del Ponte, E.M. 2009. Trichothecene mycotoxin genotypes of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto and Fusarium meridionale in wheat from southern Brazil. Plant Pathology 58 (2): 344-351.
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Techy, L., Woolsey, C.A., and Schmale, D.G. III. 2008. Path planning for efficient UAV coordination in aerobiological sampling missions. 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control: 2814-2819.
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Schmale, D.G., Dingus, B.R., and Reinholtz, C. 2008. Development and application of an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle for precise aerobiological sampling above agricultural fields. Journal of Field Robotics 25: 133-147.
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Marine, S.C., Schmale III, D.G., and Yoder, K.S. 2007. Resistance to myclobutanil in populations of Venturia inaequalis in Winchester, Virginia. Plant Health Progress DOI:10.1094/PHP-2007-1113-01-RS. Click here to access the article online.










Schmale, D. G. III, and Bergstrom, G. C. 2007. The aerobiology and population genetic structure of Gibberella zeae. Plant Health Progress DOI:10.1094/PHP-2007-0726-04-RV.
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.











Schmale, D.G., Wood-Jones, A.K., Hansen, M.A., Stromberg, E.L., and Roane, C.W. 2007. First report of Cephalosporium gramineaum, causal agent of Cephalosporium stripe of wheat, in a commercial winter wheat field in Virginia. Plant Disease 91: 329. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0329C.
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Wang J, Patel V, Woolsey CA, Hovakimyan N, and Schmale, D.G. 2007. L1 adaptive control of a UAV for aerobiological sampling. American Control Conference: 4660-4665.
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Schmale, D.G., Leslie, J. F., Zeller, K. A., Saleh, A. A., Shields, E. J., and Bergstrom, G.C. 2006. Genetic structure of atmospheric populations of Gibberella zeae. Phytopathology 96:1021-1026.
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Schmale, D. G., Shields, E. J., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2006. Night-time spore deposition of the Fusarium head blight pathogen, Gibberella zeae. Can. J. Plant Pathology 28:100-108.
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Schmale, D. G., Shah, D. A., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2005. Spatial patterns of viable spore deposition of Gibberella zeae in wheat fields. Phytopathology 95: 472-479.
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Schmale, D. G., Shah, D. A., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2005. Spatial patterns of viable spore deposition of the corn ear rot pathogen, Gibberella zeae, in first- year corn fields. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 27: 225-233.
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Schmale, D. G., Arntsen, Q. A., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2005. The forcible discharge distance of ascospores of Gibberella zeae. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 27:376-382.
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Maldonado-Ramirez, S. L., Schmale, D. G., Shields, E. J., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2005. The relative abundance of viable spores of Gibberella zeae in the planetary boundary layer suggests the role of long- distance transport in regional epidemics of Fusarium head blight. Agric. For. Meteorol. 132: 20-27.
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Schmale, D. G., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2004. Spore deposition of the ear rot pathogen, Gibberella zeae, inside corn canopies. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 26: 591-595.
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Schmale, D. G., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2003. Fusarium head blight. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-I-2003-0612-01.
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Schmale, D. G., and Gordon, T.R. 2003. Variation in susceptibility to pitch canker disease, caused by Fusarium circinatum, in native stands of Pinus muricata. Plant Pathology 52: 720-725.
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Theses Directed or Co-Directed


Pietsch, R.. May 2016. Getting out of the water and into the air: Understanding aerosolization of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae from aquatic environments. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Schmale, D.G., Brown, B., and Ross, S.
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David, R.F. May 2016 Impact of Meteorological Conditions and Maturity of Perithecia on the Release of Fusarium graminearum Ascospores. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Marr, L. and Schmale, D.










Adducci, B. May 2015. Detection of a Surrogate Biological Threat Agent (Bacillus
globigii) with a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisor: Schmale, D.











Bozorg Magham, A.. February 2014 Atmospheric Lagrangian transport structures and their applications to aerobiology Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Ross, S. and Schmale, D.
Click here to access the article online.










Palframan, M. June 2013. Real Time Biological Threat Agent Detection with a Surface Plasmon Resonance Equipped Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Woolsey, C. and Schmale, D.
Click here to access the thesis online.










Prussin, A. May 2013. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Schmale, D. and Ross, S.
Click here to access the thesis online.










Lin, B. May 2013. Movement and Structure of Atmospheric Populations of Fusarium. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Schmale, D. and Ross, S.
Click here to access the thesis online.










Marine, Sasha. April 2012. Characterization of fungicide resistance in Venturia inaequalis populations in Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Yoder, K. and Schmale, D.










Khatibi, P. July 2011. Reduction of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley ethanol co-products using trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisor: Schmale, D.
Click here to access the thesis online.










Keller, M. April 2011. The Contribution of Within-Field Inoculum Sources of Gibberella zeae to Fusarium Head Blight in Winter Wheat and Barley. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisor: Schmale, D.
Click here to access the thesis online.










Techy, L. November 2009. Flight Vehicle Control and Aerobiological Sampling Applications. Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Woolsey, C. and Schmale, D.
Click here to access the thesis online.










Dingus, B. May 2007. Development of an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Aerobiological Sampling. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Major Advisors: Reinholtz, C. and Schmale, D.
Click here to access the thesis online.